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Understanding the Kano Model for Product Development: A Guide for Investors

Updated: Feb 19



In today's fiercely competitive market, businesses must understand their customers deeply to stand out and deliver memorable products. One way businesses achieve this is by employing the Kano Model. For investors, understanding this model can provide insights into a company's product development strategy and potential for customer satisfaction. In this article, we'll delve into the Kano Model, its principles, and its relevance to investing.



What is the Kano Model?


Developed in the 1980s by Professor Noriaki Kano, the Kano Model is a framework used to prioritize features based on customer preferences and to enhance product satisfaction. It classifies product attributes into five categories, helping businesses determine which features will satisfy, delight, or frustrate customers.


Categories of the Kano Model:


  • Basic Needs: These are fundamental attributes that customers expect. Failure to meet them results in dissatisfaction, but merely meeting them doesn't significantly increase satisfaction. Example: A smartphone must be able to make calls and send messages.

  • Performance Needs: Features that customers explicitly desire and which are often used as differentiators in the market. Example: A smartphone's camera quality or battery life.

  • Excitement Needs: Unexpected features that, when present, can significantly increase satisfaction but, when absent, don't cause dissatisfaction. Example: A smartphone that can charge wirelessly or has a unique augmented reality feature.

  • Indifferent Needs: Features toward which customers are neutral—whether they exist or not doesn't significantly impact satisfaction. Example: The color of the inside components of a smartphone.

  • Reverse Needs: Features that can satisfy a segment of customers when absent but dissatisfy them when present. Example: Some users might prefer a phone without a camera for privacy reasons.


Applying the Kano Model in Investing:


  • Evaluating Product Development Strategy: Companies that employ the Kano Model are likely to have a better understanding of their customer's needs, increasing the chances of product success. Investors can assess if businesses are focusing on just the basic needs or are they also targeting performance and excitement needs.

  • Predicting Market Reception: Products that align with the Kano Model's principles, addressing basic, performance, and excitement needs, are likely to be well-received in the market.

  • Competitive Advantage: A firm that consistently leverages the Kano Model might establish a reputation for exceeding customer expectations, giving it a competitive edge.


Real-world Example: Apple


Apple, though not explicitly stating its use of the Kano Model, often designs products that align with its principles.


  • Basic Needs: Every iPhone can make calls, browse the internet, and send messages.

  • Performance Needs: Apple emphasizes its camera quality, processing speed, and battery life, which are direct comparisons and differentiators with competitors.

  • Excitement Needs: Features like Siri, Animoji, and the introduction of Face ID were unexpected but increased user satisfaction.


For investors, understanding how Apple addresses these needs can give insights into their product development strategy and potential reception in the market.


For investors, the Kano Model offers a lens to evaluate a company's product development and innovation strategy. By understanding where a company's features fit within the Kano Model, investors can better predict product success, customer satisfaction, and potential market reception. A business that balances basic, performance, and excitement needs is well-placed to create products that resonate with and delight its customers.

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