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Unknown Unknowns: Navigating the Unforeseen in Investing

Updated: Mar 15


As investors, we are all too familiar with the uncertainties and complexities that constitute the financial landscape. In this world, knowledge and prediction are our primary tools for understanding market trends, mitigating risks, and identifying opportunities. But how do we navigate the uncertain, the unpredictable, and most importantly, the unknowable? This article delves into the concept of "Unknown Unknowns" in investment, offering practical guidance on how investors can tackle these challenges.



Defining "Unknown Unknowns"


Donald Rumsfeld, the former US Secretary of Defense, once famously differentiated between "known unknowns" and "unknown unknowns". Known unknowns are risks we are aware of but whose outcomes are uncertain, like whether a company's earnings will meet analysts' expectations. Unknown unknowns, on the other hand, refer to events or risks we are unaware of and cannot foresee. These can include sudden technological shifts, natural disasters, geopolitical events, or regulatory changes.


Impact of Unknown Unknowns on Investment


Unknown unknowns introduce an entirely new level of risk into an investment portfolio. For instance, the 2008 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic were unknown unknowns that had unprecedented impacts on the global economy and financial markets. Consider a real-world example: Before 2020, few could have predicted a global pandemic that would decimate entire sectors such as travel and hospitality, while boosting others like remote work software and e-commerce. This unforeseen event undoubtedly disrupted pre-existing investment strategies and rendered many forecasts obsolete.


Strategies to Manage Unknown Unknowns


While it is impossible to predict or plan for unknown unknowns, certain strategies can help investors better prepare for such situations.


  • Diversification: Spreading investments across various sectors, geographic regions, and asset classes can help mitigate the damage caused by a negative event in one specific area. For instance, during the COVID-19 pandemic, investors who were diversified across tech stocks and healthcare may have offset losses experienced in the tourism or hospitality sectors.

  • Risk Management: This involves implementing measures to limit exposure to potential losses. For example, setting stop-loss orders, using hedging strategies, or maintaining a cash reserve can provide a level of protection against severe market downturns.

  • Flexibility: Maintaining a flexible investment approach is essential. This means being willing to adjust strategies based on new information or changes in the market, and avoiding becoming too committed to a single investment or strategy.

  • Regular Review: Frequent portfolio review and rebalancing are important in responding to changing market conditions. This allows investors to realign their investment portfolio with their risk tolerance and investment goals.

  • Long-term Focus: An investor focused on the long-term may be better positioned to weather the storm of unknown unknowns. While short-term market movements can be volatile and unpredictable, the long-term trend of the market has historically been upward.


While "unknown unknowns" pose a significant challenge, they also present opportunities for those who can quickly adapt and seize new trends. They remind us of the necessity for humility, preparedness, and adaptability in the ever-dynamic investment landscape. No investor can predict the future with absolute certainty, but by understanding the concept of unknown unknowns and implementing the above strategies, they can be better prepared for whatever the future holds.

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