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Mass Delusion in Investment: A Guide with Examples

Updated: Feb 19



Mass delusion is a phenomenon wherein a large group of people believe something to be true, despite significant evidence to the contrary. In the world of investment, this can lead to asset bubbles, overvaluations, and eventual crashes. For investors, understanding mass delusion is crucial for risk management and avoiding potential pitfalls.



What Causes Mass Delusion?


Mass delusion in the investment world can be attributed to several factors:


  • Herd Mentality: Investors tend to follow the actions of the majority, believing there's safety in numbers.

  • Over-Optimism: A pervasive sense of euphoria can cause individuals to overlook obvious risks.

  • Information Dissemination: Misinformation or lack of critical information can lead to misguided investment decisions.

  • Cognitive Biases: Humans are prone to various biases that can cloud judgment, such as confirmation bias where individuals favor information that confirms their preconceptions.


Historic Examples of Mass Delusion in Investments


  • The Tulip Mania (1630s): Perhaps one of the most famous examples of mass delusion, the Dutch Tulip Mania saw tulip bulb prices skyrocketing in the 1630s. At its peak, some tulip bulbs were worth more than houses. However, the bubble eventually burst, leading to financial ruin for many speculators. The mania wasn’t just about the intrinsic value of tulips but more about the speculative gains from reselling them.

  • The South Sea Bubble (1720): The South Sea Company, a British joint-stock company, promised potential profits overseas. Investors, without performing due diligence, rushed to buy its shares, driving prices to exorbitant levels. However, when it became clear that the company's profits were far less than expected, the bubble burst, leading to significant losses.

  • The Dot-Com Bubble (late 1990s - 2000): During the late 1990s, the advent of the internet led to exuberant optimism about the potential profitability of online businesses. Startups with a '.com' suffix saw their stock prices soar, often without any substantial revenue or profits. When investors realized many of these companies weren’t profitable, the bubble burst, causing significant market declines.

  • The 2023 AI Bubble: The rise of artificial intelligence fostered immense enthusiasm for its transformative potential in various industries. Industry leading tech companies and startups flaunting "AI-driven" solutions reached massive valuations and investments, often without clear monetization strategies or unique value propositions.


How Can Investors Avoid Mass Delusion?


  • Do Your Own Research: Don’t rely solely on the word of others. Study financial statements, understand the industry, and gauge the realistic value of an investment.

  • Avoid the Herd: Just because everyone is doing it doesn’t mean it's right. Basing decisions on the actions of others can lead to pitfalls.

  • Diversify: Diversification can help shield your portfolio from significant losses if one investment goes south.

  • Stay Informed: Ensure you have a holistic view of the market, including potential risks.

  • Seek External Perspectives: Talk to contrarians. Those who hold different views can provide invaluable insights that might be overlooked otherwise.


Mass delusion has been a recurring theme in investment history. By understanding past occurrences and maintaining a disciplined and informed approach to investing, one can hope to navigate the complex world of investments more safely and effectively. Always remember: If something seems too good to be true, it probably is.

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