In the realm of investment, many look at the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a complete indicator of a country's economic performance. But two other significant tools are the Gross Domestic Income (GDI) and the Gross Domestic Output (GDO). This article aims to break down these three economic indicators, discuss their differences, and highlight their relevance to the investing community.
Breaking Down Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The GDP is a measure of all the goods and services produced within a country's borders within a given time. It covers private and public consumption, government outlays, investments, and the net of exports minus imports. Regarded as a comprehensive measure of a nation's overall economic activity, GDP is viewed as an indicator of the economic health of a nation. For instance, if we look at Japan, which had a GDP of about $4.2 trillion in 2022, this figure indicates the total value of all economic activity within the country, including every industry from automobile production to financial services for that year.
Gross Domestic Income (GDI) Defined
GDI, however, is a measure of all income earned in the process of producing goods and services within a country's borders. It encompasses wages, profits, rents, and taxes, while excluding subsidies. So while GDP gauges economic activity from the output or expenditure side, GDI evaluates it from the income side. Using Japan as an example again, if we calculate its GDI, we would account for all income generated by individuals and corporations from various sectors, including salaries, corporate profits, and rent income generated within the year.
The Introduction of Gross Domestic Output (GDO)
A third and equally relevant measure of economic activity is the Gross Domestic Output (GDO). The GDO is essentially an average of GDP and GDI, which helps reduce the statistical discrepancies and noise that arise from the different data sources of GDP and GDI. In theory, the GDP and GDI should provide the same economic activity estimate as every dollar spent on a good or service flows as income to households, firms, or the government. However, due to different data sources, the GDP and GDI estimates usually vary slightly, which makes GDO a valuable tool for a more accurate measurement of economic activity.
Which is Better for Investors?
While GDP is more commonly cited due to its wide-ranging nature and historical popularity, GDI and GDO provide different perspectives that can be beneficial for investors.
Evaluating the Economic Health
GDP reveals the health of the economy from the demand side, demonstrating how much is spent on goods and services, valuable for investments in consumer-driven sectors. On the contrary, GDI gives insights from the income side, indicating how much income is generated from the production of goods and services. This could offer investors a different viewpoint on the health of different economy sectors.
Predicting Business Cycle
Research has indicated that GDI could be a better indicator of the business cycle. A 2007 study by economist Jeremy J. Nalewaik suggested that GDI might be a better predictor of recession and recovery periods, particularly when GDI and GDP provide diverging signals. This could be useful for investors looking to adapt their portfolios according to economic turning points.
GDO comes in to reconcile the differences and reduce the statistical noise in GDP and GDI. By averaging the two, GDO can provide a more accurate picture of the economic activity, which some economists suggest is a more robust measure.
GDP, GDI, and GDO offer valuable insights into a country's economic activity, each from its unique perspective. For an investor, the choice among GDP, GDI, and GDO should be guided by what specific information is needed and how it applies to your investment approach. Ideally, a well-rounded analysis would incorporate all three measures, along with other economic indicators, for a comprehensive view of the economy's health.