Financial markets stand as one of the most complex and rewarding sectors in our society. They provide a multitude of opportunities and risks, and they act as a barometer of a country's economy. To truly understand how financial markets function, it's crucial to grasp that they operate more on relative measurements rather than absolute ones. This article dives into this notion, clarifying its meaning and offering examples for better understanding.
The Concept of Relative and Absolute Measurements
The terms "absolute" and "relative" are ubiquitous across various disciplines, including mathematics, physics, and of course, finance. An absolute measurement denotes a static, unvarying benchmark, a fixed value serving as a reference point. For instance, securing an annual return of 10% may be viewed as an absolute target in the investment world. Contrarily, a relative measurement involves the comparison of one situation, value, or performance to another. In the finance world, it could mean appraising a company's performance relative to its competitors, or the return on an investment compared to a specific index.
Why Financial Markets Lean More Towards Relative Measurements
Why do financial markets function more on a relative rather than absolute scale? The answer lies in their inherent dynamism. Financial markets are complex adaptive systems in constant flux due to an array of factors, including economic indicators, corporate performance, government policies, and investor sentiment.
Here are the primary reasons for the prevalence of relative measurements in financial markets:
Market Competition and Benchmarking: Companies, stocks, and securities in financial markets do not exist in a vacuum. They form part of a broader ecosystem and are often compared against each other and various benchmarks. For instance, a mutual fund's performance is typically compared with a benchmark index like the S&P 500. If the fund outperforms the index, it's deemed successful, even if the absolute return may be lower than in previous years. This comparison gives investors a clearer understanding of how a particular investment is performing in the context of the market. The aim isn't necessarily to achieve a fixed return but to outperform the market or a chosen benchmark.
Risk and Return Trade-off: Relative measurements are also pivotal when understanding the trade-off between risk and return in investing. Investments are often assessed based on their risk-adjusted returns — the amount of return an investment generates in relation to the risk involved. For example, if Investment A and Investment B both offer a return of 8%, but Investment A does so with half the volatility of Investment B, then Investment A is deemed superior on a relative scale.
Market Efficiency and Pricing: The Efficient Market Hypothesis proposes that all available information is already factored into the price of securities. Hence, stocks are always traded at their fair value, making it impossible to consistently beat the market on a risk-adjusted basis. Under this theory, the only way for investors to achieve higher returns is by accepting higher risk.
Consequently, the pricing of securities is a relative process. A stock's price is determined by comparing it to similar stocks, considering factors such as earnings, cash flow, growth potential, and risk. An investor wouldn't simply consider a stock's price in absolute terms but would assess it in relation to these other elements.
Although the concept of absolute returns and objectives holds some relevance in financial markets, the overriding principle leans toward relative measurements. This approach accommodates the dynamism and continuous change inherent in financial markets, enabling more precise comparisons, realistic expectations, and strategic decision-making. By understanding this principle, investors can more accurately evaluate the value and performance of their investments. Instead of focusing solely on a fixed number or return, investors should compare their performance with the market, adjust for risk, and consider the relative valuations and performance of other similar investments. This method allows investors to devise a more sophisticated, informed, and potentially successful investment strategy.